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Monday, March 24, 2008

Face Book Now Myspace recording all we do

BBC NEWS

What Myspace means to Murdoch

* Analysis *
By Jeremy Scott-Joynt
BBC News business reporter


* Just three months ago, news magnate Rupert Murdoch made an unusual
admission.

*He had realised, he told a high-powered audience at the American Society
of Newspaper Editors in Washington DC, that he had got something rather
important rather wrong. News Corporation, the global media group he controls, had failed
properly to engage with the online world - and risked losing its
hard-won position in news as a result. As a "digital immigrant" - as he described himself - he acknowledged he found it difficult to visualize how News Corp should change its ways. But he had no doubt that radical change was coming, and that it was inevitable. Commentators took the unusual "mea culpa" as a sign that News Corp was gearing up for a wholesale revamp of its approach to the internet. On 19 July, what appears to be the first really substantive part of the
new strategy swung into action: the purchase, for $580m, of the firm behind the wildly popular Myspace. com online community.

* Deja vu? *

Cynics may charge that Mr Murdoch has been here before. In 1999, another keynote speech laid out lofty ambitions for News Corp online - only for several well-financed operations to close down within months of their launch.

* Young people don't want to rely on a God-like figure from above to
tell them what's important *
Rupert Murdoch

Before that came failed initiatives such as Delphi Internet in the
mid-1990s, an online service which mingled News Corp's UK content with
US material and failed to capture anyone's imagination, and an abortive
internet service provider experiment called LineOne.

* Everyone's an editor *

Even so, buying Intermix - and thus Myspace - seems to match the
requirements Mr Murdoch laid down in his 13 April speech. The central message was that the days of newspapers editing content into a one-size-fits-all package to be consumed without question by the reader were numbered. Young people "don't want to rely on a God-like figure from above to tell them what's important," Mr Murdoch said. "And to carry the religion analogy a bit further, they certainly don't want news presented as gospel. "Instead, they want their news on demand, when it works for them. They want control over their media, instead of being controlled by it. They want to question, to probe, to offer a different angle."

Myspace fits neatly into that definition.

It is a network of pages - most set up by individuals, some by musicians and other creative types - each mixing self-generated text and pictures, links to other content elsewhere, and streamed music and video to create networks of friends and contacts. The result is a densely interwoven community, which its adherents - 14 million a month, by some measures - say is highly addictive. Not that different, in fact, from Mr Murdoch's description of a world
where users act as their own editors, choosing their own news and
content from the huge range of possibilities available online. Of course, every page of Myspace content contains adverts - and Mr Murdoch left his listeners in no doubt that their books would bleed red ink unless they found ways of exploiting the boom in online advertising.

* Backing brands *

What remains unclear is where the other part of Mr Murdoch's vision fits
in. Later in his speech, he talked of the importance of brands - the heart,
after all, of the News Corp empire. Despite the doomsaying, newspaper journalists and editors were perfectly positioned to keep supplying the core content on which the
communications communities would be built, he said. "We have the experience, the brands, the resources, and the know-how to get it done. We have unique content to differentiate ourselves in a world where news is becoming increasingly commoditized."That may prove challenging - after all, suspicion of existing media outlets is rife in weblogs and other chatty outposts of the web. Then again, earlier in July News Corp announced the launch of Fox Interactive Media, a hub for Fox news, sport and entertainment in the US. Myspace, News Corp says, could drive traffic to Fox Interactive Media. And most importantly, Myspace has detailed logs of its users'
preferences, online behaviour and personal information. That could help the company tailor what it does to the ever-more-discerning market which Mr Murdoch believes he has identified.


Story from BBC NEWS:
http://news. bbc. co. uk/go/pr/fr/-/1/hi/business/4697671. stm

Published: 2005/07/19 16:23:53 GMT
© BBC MMVIII

The Artist friendly Contract

The Artist-Friendly Contract

by Keith Holzman,

Keith Holzman Solutions Unlimited.

All rights reserved.

It’s been a number of years since I’ve written about artist contracts, but it’s a subject much on my mind lately because I’ve been seeing agreements that would curl your hair. I’m not an attorney so I advise all my clients to retain an experienced entertainment lawyer to draft their own standard artist agreement, but I’m making the suggestions below based on my many years’ involvement with them.

I’ve always stressed to my clients that their contacts be artist-friendly, and I mean this from two standpoints. First, they should be fair and even-handed in the terms and provisions. Second, they should be written so that the average person can readily understand what they mean.

These are some of the things record labels should consider when writing artist agreements.

Term. Be sure the "term" -- the period of time the agreement is in effect -- is clearly stated. Some are so complicated that it takes an Aztec calendar and an abacus to calculate how long they run, and then lawyers are frequently in disagreement when they try to interpret them. The same should also apply to the definition and length of option periods.

Royalty Base. The royalty base should be 100 percent of either
suggested retail list price (SRLP,) or the label’s price to its distributor, or the distributor’s average price to its dealers (PPD.) Whichever of these is used, it should be clearly stated as such, and the calculated royalty should be proportionate. In other words, the artist’s royalty should be more or less the same no matter which of the above is the basis. For example, a 10 percent royalty based on an SRLP of $14.98 would be about $1.50, but if based on the label’s price to its distributor (about $7.50 -- roughly 50 percent of retail) then you’d need to double the artist’s royalty to about 20 percent to come up with the same $1.50.

Deductions. Forget about packaging deductions which has been common but unnecessary since CDs have been typically issued in jewel cases. This provision is a throwback to the 60’s when such a deduction might have been necessary when artists commonly requested expensive packaging including gatefold jackets and booklets with lyrics and lots of photos. I can see some rationale for a deduction for expensive Digipaks¨. But that’s about it.

There’s also no need for deductions for such standard configurations as CDs, cassettes, etc. The CD deduction dates back to the early 80’s when it was a new and unproved configuration and the actual cost of manufacture was about three times higher than the then-prevailing LP. That’s when the "new technology" clause started creeping into contracts.

And of course there should certainly be no deductions for downloaded sales. I’ve seen contracts where there’s a packaging deduction taken even for these sales that have no package at all!

Territory. Clearly state the territories that are covered. If it’s the World then say so. But "parallel universes" -- as in some contracts? Get real!

Ownership of masters is frequently another sore point. It’s my opinion that masters should always revert to the artist in the case where a label closes shop and hasn’t sold its assets. Some agreements stipulate that, should the label go under or be in default for not paying royalties, ownership of the masters will revert to the artist.

If the recording is a "work for hire" then that should be stated as such, with a clear explanation what the term means.

Royalty percentages should be clearly stated for each configuration and price category, particularly for digital sales.

Free Goods. I’m not a great believer in using free goods to promote the sale of CDs because this practice has been severely abused by many labels and accounts. If you must utilize free goods, I recommend you limit their use contractually to a defined amount, but in any event no more than 10 percent, which I believe is itself too high.

Controlled Compositions are those that are written by the artist or producer, and for which most labels prefer to pay less -- typically 75 percent of the statutory amount. This can be very unfair to an artist and his publisher, but it’s one way for a label to control its costs.

Co-publishing. Many labels try to obtain a portion of a writing artist’s publishing. This is typically 50 percent of the publisher’s portion, allowing the artist to retain the other 50 percent of the publisher’s portion as well as 100 percent of the writer’s portion. Therefore the writing artist would own three quarters of all the publishing with the label retaining the other quarter. I believe this is a fair provision, provided that the label’s publishing division actively works to promote the copyrights involved.

Cross Collateralization between publishing and record royalties is attempted in some contracts, but this is a no-no and is extremely unfair to an artist who writes his own material. More common is crossing multiple releases so that positive royalties from higher selling albums are crossed with losses from poorer selling ones. This is not unreasonable in cases where a label has actively been developing an artist’s career and is thus an opportunity for a label to try to recoup some of its losses.

Tour Support. Most independent labels can’t afford to spend much in the way of assisting an artist’s touring, other than through use of the label’s publicity department to support the artist’s efforts. However, if a label helps support the artist while on tour, then it’s reasonable that it be a recoupable cost.

Independent Publicity, Promotion, and Marketing. Many small labels don’t have fully staffed departments to handle these functions so in the event they hire outside specialists, it’s not unreasonable that a portion -- no more than 50 percent -- be recoupable from the artist’s royalties.

Merchandising. It’s becoming quite common for labels to negotiate for a percentage of an artist’s merchandising income. I don’t think this is unreasonable for those labels who actively work to develop their artists’ careers, but I think it very unreasonable otherwise.

Artist Approvals should be requested whenever feasible, but these should not be contractually offered. I’ve seen too many occasions where artist’s unreasonably withheld approvals and impaired a project
and its release.

I don’t recommend that a label contracts with an artist who is underage. This can create untold problems, even when parents sign an agreement. I suggest waiting until the artist has reached majority.

Profit Sharing. There are many occasions when an artist or group will record an entire album paying for all the costs as they proceed, without requesting funds from the label. This is particularly common when an artist is not yet signed and records an album on his own. In this event a label and the artist may enter into a simple profit-sharing plan, where all recording, manufacturing and marketing costs from both sides are pooled. Then net income after accounting for expenses is split, usually on a 50/50 basis.

You might include in your contract a comment recommending that the artist seek the advice of a competent attorney thoroughly familiar with record industry practice.

In order to keep an agreement reasonably simple, some attorneys put all of the definitions, and certain other boilerplate, in a discrete part of the contract. These are items that will usually remain standard for all of a label’s agreements and simplifies the negotiating person’s work and reduces the amount of typing by an assistant or paralegal. The definitions will include all of the standard words that require strict explanation so that there will be no confusion over terminology.

In sum, I believe that a label should be as fair as possible in signing an artist. After all, this should be like a partnership where both artist and label share any bounty. Contracts should be just that -- an agreement between both parties that is fair and equitable, creating a win-win situation for all. In short, don’t be greedy.
Until next month,

Keith Holzman -- Solutions Unlimited


Keith Holzman is the principal of Solutions Unlimited, a management consultant specializing in the recording industry. A trusted advisor and troubleshooter, he is a seasoned music business senior executive with extensive experience in all aspects of running a label. He was President of ROM Records, Managing Director of Discovery Records, Senior Vice President of Elektra, and Director of Nonesuch Records. He publishes "Manage for Success," a free monthly email newsletter devoted to solving problems of the record industry. You can subscribe at his website .

"IT’S NO LONGER SMART TO BE DUMB!"

FREEDOM, REDEMPTION, INTERNATIONAL REPATRIATION!

To the Archbishop of Canterbury


Blessed Love My Lord,

Give thanks and praise for Life and for the Allmighty, Omnipotent and Blessed Life Giver, the Black Christ in Flesh and Blood, Holy Emmanuel I , Selassie I, JAH RASTAFARI.

I an I, the Ethiopia Africa Black International Congress, True Divine Church of Salvation, Sons and Daughters of the God of Ethiopia, the Black God of Zion greet you and your whole congregation with a Heart of Love.

Give thanks to the God of Truth and Rights for the acknowledgement that your church’s participation in and profiting from, the brutal, shameful, evil and wicked slave trade and the slavery system, is wrong.

In the early 80s, the Pope of Rome, went into Africa, kissed the earth and asked for forgiveness, then later the Bitish Government acknowledged their wrong in participating in slavery and the slave trade, and asked for pardon, and, up to now, nothing has been done to return us to Our Homeland, Ethiopia the land where all Gods and Goddesses love to be. Away with empty apologies and crocodile tears! It is time for ACTION now to RECTIFY the wrong done to our Forefathers and Foremothers and to bring forth the full EMANCIPATION of all slave children internationally and universally in Righteousness of Salvation.

From, as early as, the 1st of March 1958, King Emmanuel Charles Edwards, the BLACK GOD in Flesh and Blood, formed and established this Black International Congress to Agitate and make Representation for Freedom, Redemption and International Repatriation. I, King Emmanuel had sent and come to deliver My People out of bondage. It was on the 1st of August 1834, that the shackles came off our feet. August coming up is 173 years now, and I an I are still waiting to be returned to Ethiopia! Can there be repentance without JUSTICE? No!

We have All Authority to Demand Our Rights from both, the spiritual head, of the Church of England, the Archbishop of Canterbury, and the temporal head, Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II. Is it JUSTICE to forcibly remove People from their Homeland, carry them thousands of miles away, brutalize and ill treat them in the name of white civilization, break down their family values and traditions and then leave them to continue working for you in another man’s land even though their cry their heartfelt desire is to be REPATRIATED? No!

In 1966, her Majesty, Queen Elizabeth II, the Queen of England, declared at King’s House, Jamaica, that there is an Individual Man in this country who No One must molest for, in time to come, which is this time, He shall be Lord over her Lords. She said this after she received a Red, White and Blue Pouch from I containing the Black World Flags of the RED, GOLD AND GREEN and the RED, BLACK AND GREEN with BLACK five-point Star, Lion Crowned Head and R symbols respectively, along with the BLACK flag. She bowed her head to these flags and spoke such words.

JUSTICE DEMANDS that the church of England use some of the huge profits that it gained from such wickedness as slavery and the slave trade to provide Transportation and all other requirements for the speedy Repatriation of all of God’s Children, the black House of Israelites who want to go home to Ethiopia, to fulfil History and Prophecy (Micah 4, Joel 3, Isaiah 43] Holy Emmanuel I, Selassie I, Jah RastafarI.

The world must return to Righteousness as how Christ created it. The Black Christ come to Rule. His commandment is LOVE! On Love hang all laws and prophet’s commandments. Everything must come to a final Reckoning for the Freedom , Redemption and International Repatriation of all Black People out of oppression in Egypt/Jamaica and Universally. It is time for every Man, Woman and Child of Right to Defend the JUSRICE and Peacefulness of righteousness. Righteousness exalts a nation but sin bringeth any people to a reproach.

Calling for 7, 9, or 13 miles of Black Starliner Highwater Ships to take us home. As the Most Rt. Hon. Marcus Mosiah Garvey say, Africa for the Africans those at home and us abroad, China for the Chinese, India for the Indians, Europe for the Europeans and the western hemisphere, the inheritance of the Arawak Indians.

Awake to the REALITY of God in Flesh and Blood. Man of Right is God in Flesh. Woman of Right is Goddess in Flesh. Men of wrong is satan in flesh. Women of wrong is sataness in flesh. Away with white men dead philosophy and teaching of a spirit god without flesh, anti-Christ doctrine, which cannot save anyone. Beloved, believe not every spirit, but try the spirits whether they are of God because many false prophets are gone out into the world. Hereby know ye the Spirit of God. Every spirit that confesseth that Jes-us Christ is come in the flesh is of God. (1st John 4.1,2}.

Five bleeding wounds the black Christ in flesh and blood bear to take away the sins of the world and for the Redemption of the Black House of Israelites, Internationally and Universally. We demand Freedom out of migration law because we did not come here under any migration law therefore we call for Freedom, Redemption and International Repatriation with full Compensation through the International Court of Justice, the United Nations, Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II and her privy council and the prime minister of Jamaica. We call upon all Heads of Government who have profited from the evils of slavery and the slave trade such as Britain, France, Spain, the United States of America, Portugal, Belgium and Holland to contribute to this International works of Righteous Redemption. For there cannot be a World Peace until every man,woman and child be returned to his or her own vine and fig tree.

Only ONE SALVATION stand, Jes-us Emmanuel, the Black Christ Salvation. All Black Ethiopian Sons and Daughters at Home and Abroad are one People ,one Nation, one Father and Mother children. The Black Kingdom is the First Kingdom on earth. Out of Black man and woman come all other nations. Only the black World have a Kingdom, for we are the first Nation., (1st Timothy 6. 14, 15, 16).

An Ethiopian cannot change his skin nor a leopard his spots(Jeremiah 13 v 23}.Holy Emmanuel I Selassie I, JAH RASTAFARI. Remember the sabbath day to keep it holy(Exodus 20 & 3). The Sabbath Day begins 6 o’clock Friday evening (sunset) to 6 o’clock Saturday evening (sunset). This is a commandment from Creation Birth.

We want to know what you can do to further Freedom, Redemption and International Repatriation? We are looking for an early reply. May God bless you to build up Peace and Love so that there can be Harmony on Earth in Righteousness of Salvation. Holy Emmanuel I,Selassie I, JAH RASTAFARI.

Crown Him with many crowns, The Lamb upon His throne, Hark how the Heavenly Anthem drowns, All music but its own. Holy Emmanuel I, Selassie I, Jah RastafarI.

Closing with seven (7) words of LOVE, God is Love, let us All Love.

I am,
Most Rt. Hon. King Emmanuel Charles Edwards,
Brother Moses, The Lord’s Servant,
Black Christ in Flesh
Black Secretary General of the United Nations,
Crowned Champion of Human Rights/Human Justice
President of the Ethiopia/Africa Black International Congress,
True Divine Church of Salvation,
I Negus Rule Israelite
I.N.R.I..

Consious and the Unconsious (Organize)









Tupac Shakur's Speech


Those I.D.'s talked about for years They think we're ready








U scared enough








ALL EARS








Cure

Iran Cures AIDS
Health Minister Kamran Baqeri Lankarani announces after 5 years of research, Iran now has an herbal cure for AIDS. The herb can ONLY be found in Iran.

The herbal drug called IMOD, is the result of five years of research and has been tested on 200 patients. It boosts the human body’s immunity system in a 90-day treatment course and a 2-year follow up.
"Deficiency of the body’s immune system reflects a decrease in CD4 cells that lead to appearance of AIDS symptoms," he said, adding that the new drug controls the multiplication of HIV virus and thus helps increasing the CD4 cells.

The herbs used in production of IMOD are completely Iranian native plants, he noted.

Iran is the only country in the region that provides free HIV drugs to the patients, Baqeri Lankarani said. [snip]

"I believe that the drug should be used for HIV patients whose CD4 is below 350, to prevent them from entering the severe level of AIDS," she stated. (source)


The drug has only been tested on 200 patients, but will be tested on 5,000 over the next calendar year. Iran claims to have only 14,000 cases if AIDS presently, but expects ’the number of those infected will reach 100 000 by the end of the next Iranian year (March 2008)’.

Iran is believed to have at least two million regular drug users - and possibly as many as 3.5 million ... Intravenous drug use is believed to be the main cause of HIV/Aids infection at 62.3%, followed by "unknown causes" at 27.9% and sexual contact at 7.4%. (source)
This sounds ... strange, too good to be true, like bragging before the research trials have actually be conducted

Everything waz started with a purpose Wow!

Crip (Community Revelation In Progress)

The Truth about A.I.D.S.




Is this 1970 DoD appropriations bill the start of the funding for the U.S. military to engineer AIDS?

(Document transcription courtesy of Panindigan.)
DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE APPROPRIATIONS FOR 1970

HEARINGS BEFORE A SUBCOMMITTEE OF THE COMMITTEE ON APPROPRIATIONS HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
NINETY-FIRST CONGRESS
FIRST SESSION
SUBCOMMITTEE ON DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE APPROPRIATIONS

H.B. 15090

PART 5
RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, TEST, AND EVALUATION

Department of the Army
Statement of Director, Advanced Research Project Agency
Statement of Director, Defense Research and Engineering

Printed for the use of the Committee on Appropriations
U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON : 1969
UNITED STATES SENATE LIBRARY

[pg.] 129 TUESDAY, JULY 1, 1969

SYNTHETIC BIOLOGICAL AGENTS

There are two things about the biological agent field I would like to mention. One is the possibility of technological surprise. Molecular biology is a field that is advancing very rapidly and eminent biologists believe that within a period of 5 to 10 years it would be possible to produce a synthetic biological agent, an agent that does not naturally exist and for which no natural immunity could have been acquired.
MR. SIKES. Are we doing any work in that field?
DR. MACARTHUR. We are not.
MR. SIKES. Why not? Lack of money or lack of interest?
DR. MACARTHUR. Certainly not lack of interest.
MR. SIKES. Would you provide for our records information on what would be required, what the advantages of such a program would be, the time and the cost involved?
DR. MACARTHUR. We will be very happy to.
(The information follows:)

The dramatic progress being made in the field of molecular biology led us to investigate the relevance of this field of science to biological warfare. A small group of experts considered this matter and provided the following observations:
1. All biological agents up the the present time are representatives of naturally occurring disease, and are thus known by scientists throughout the world. They are easily available to qualified scientists for research, either for offensive or defensive purposes.
2. Within the next 5 to 10 years, it would probably be possible to make a new infective microorganism which could differ in certain important aspects from any known disease-causing organisms. Most important of these is that it might be refractory to the immunological and therapeutic processes upon which we depend to maintain our relative freedom from infectious disease.
3. A research program to explore the feasibility of this could be completed in approximately 5 years at a total cost of $10 million.
4. It would be very difficult to establish such a program. Molecular biology is a relatively new science. There are not many highly competent scientists in the field. Almost all are in university laboratories, and they are generally adequately supported from sources other than DOD. However, it was considered possible to initiate an adequate program through the National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council (NAS-NRC).
The matter was discussed with the NAS-NRC, and tentative plans were plans were made to initiate the program. However decreasing funds in CB, growing criticism of the CB program, and our reluctance to involve the NAS-NRC in such a controversial endeavor have led us to postpone it for the past 2 years.
It is a highly controversial issue and there are many who believe such research should not be undertaken lest it lead to yet another method of massive killing of large populations. On the other hand, without the sure scientific knowledge that such a weapon is possible, and an understanding of the ways it could be done, there is little that can be done to devise defensive measures. Should an enemy develop it, there is little doubt that this is an important area of potential military technological inferiority in which there is no adequate research program.

From Jimmy Carter's Global 2000 Report & A.I.D.S. Population Control. How and why A.I.D.S. spread. Media disinformation.
For a more complete understanding of this issue please watch the documentary called: "Deconstructing the Myths of A.I.D.S."

Eugenics Blueprint for Global Enslavement






The Power of a word and Half truths




People who want to abolish the N-word make me laugh for a couple of reasons.

The first being that it seems less about getting rid of a word that does us any actual damage, and more of a fear of having to deal with REALITY.

It just seems that there are more Black folks that want to abolish the word because they fear how they will look in front of White folks.

That's dangerous. It means that there are still a large number of Black folks in the world that base their "normalcy" on the standards of White folks.

The second thing being that it never really was an issue until a people who have never been responsible for their own actions, failed to be responsible yet again with the N-word.

Instead of develop a usage protocol (which almost every lasting civilization does to resolve conflict... create a moderation plan for issues), Black folks seem to be comfortable with being socially lazy regarding the word.

We aren't thinking for ourselves. We are waiting for White folks to offer a solution to a problem they don't have the ability to solve.

And instead of realize that it is US with the power over what to say and how to say it regarding the N-word, we lay our power down like gentle beasts, in an effort to be metaphysical "patted on the head" like so many nigger canines.

The N-word is a TEST. You see... only a FEW Black people will pass the test of resistance.

Will you be Black even when it's not cool to be Black?

And if you are willing to conform the Black image or change any of our protocols before handling real issues, then you are a compromised Negro.

If you have thought critically about the situation, and have come to the conclusion that you CANNOT ride the "Abolish the N-Word" bandwagon because our most immediate needs aren't being addressed with the abolishment, as well as precious media and political resources being wasted on such a distant second or third issue in our community...

then you have passed the test and are officially a RETAINER of your Blackness....

As New Edition once said...

"sunny days... everybody loves them... but tell me baby, can... you... stand... the rain...."

How you like THEM apples:








THE METAPHYSICAL MEANING OF THE 'N' WORD

THE METAPHYSICAL MEANING OF THE 'N' WORD
Peace To The Gods & Goddess, ISLAM to the Moors (Mu'urs), As Salaamu Alaykum to the Muslims, Shalom Laikum to the Heb-rew Israelites and UHURU to the Revolutionists!!!

The question is can we handle the TRUTH (MA'AT)?

I wrote an article for "FRONTLINE" magazine three years ago called "FROM MERE MEN TO SUPER NIGGAS." In the article, I broke down the actual origin of the word "NIGGER" and "NIGGA" and both of them are derived from the word "NAGA." Check! We have two countries in Af-Ra-Ka (Africa) named "NIGER" and "NIGER-IA" but I don't see one damn (so-called) Black person telling the "NIGER-IAN" or the "NIGERIAN" please change your name because it is offensive to us. You may be wondering but NIG(G)ER and NIG(G)ERIA is missing the letter "G." It really doesn't matter. But if you are looking for the (so-call missing letter) "G" you can find it in the center of the compass and square of the Free & Accepted Masonic symbol. Any Mason will tell you (well, maybe they will and maybe they won't) but anyway I will. I never took an oath. So f-ck 'em. The letter "G" means or stands for "GOD" "GEOMETRY" or "GOVERNMENT." If you turn the letter "G" sideways, you will get a shape similar to an "EYE." Now go to Matthew 6:22 and it states,...when thine 'EYE' be single (meaning one EYE like the Greek myth of Cyclops, who had One/single "EYE" in the middle/center of his Forehead), thine whole body will be full of LIGHT." These three component, GOD, GEOMETRY and GOVERNEMENT were taken from us (Af-Ra-Kans/Africans) and perverted to enslave us. For example, the Moors (Muurs) or Olmec-Malian (Shi people or XI) descendants were the once owners of the these Americas. We were the original inhabitants. Allegedly, when the Europeans invaded Af-Ra-Ka (Africa) they found some of our descendants on the banks of the NIGER River. These were the Dogon-Malian-Mandingo-Mandes, the doctors, lawyers, politicians, masons, painters, musicians etc...were the ones that the Europeans brought over here. They didn't bring "shifting and jiving" Negroes over here. But even before, the 400 year old slave trade, our ancestors were here over 25,000 years ago. This has been documented on numerous occassions. But the words "NIGER" means in Ibo "King (Emperor)" and "NIGER-IA" means "Queen (Empress)." In fact, in Anthony T. Browers' book "NILE VALLEY CONTRIBUTIONS TO CIVILIZATION" he states, NGU is the original name the ancient Kama'atian/Egyptian "Kings" (NGA is the original name for the Queen...hence, the name origin of the two Af-Ra-Kan [African] countries NGU for NIGER and NGA for NIGER-IA...simply take the vow-ELs out). He goes on and state, the name/title "Pharoah," which menas "House of Fire" originated with the invasion of the Hyksos in the 15th Dynasty. Thus, the Nigers (Kings) & Nigerians (Queens), which originally dwelt in Kama'at/Egypt were the royal bloodline and they moved further west and form the countries NIGER & NIGER-IA. The word NGU is also spelled "NTU" or "NTR" as in NeTerU, the ancient Kama'atian (Egyptian) word for "God" or "Gods." So, I AM A NGU/NTU/NTR/NGA/NIGGA/NIGGER FOR LIFE & BEYOND!Also, throughout the world in every culture we find the word "NAGA" meaning in all of them "Serpent King/Queen" symbolizing "One who had mastered the Kundalini-Shakti/Shiva Power/Force or Energy." Oh, you all forgot about the Serpent that comes out of the forehead area from the Kama'atian (Egyptian) tiara or crown? It comes out at the crown because it represents the raising of the life-force within Man (Mind) & Womb-Man (Universe) to the intuitive/universal-magnetic/infinite conscious level. Here is more proof...if you got a problem with the facts that I present...its' simple prove me wrong...

'Nkosi,' means 'King,' in many AF-RA-KAM dialects. In 'Niger,' AF-RA-KA, the word for 'Serpent' is 'Nyoka' from the Kanyika, Kabenda, Mimboma, Musentandu, Kasands, Nyombe, Basunde, N'gola, Zubalo, Songa, Kisarn, and Nyarnban or 'Nyoke ' from Swahili. In Basuto, AF-RA-KA, the word for 'Serpent' is 'Noga.' The 'Nk' or 'Ng' is the original AF-RA-KAM sound. According to the "METU NETER" by Ra Un Nefer Amen on pg. 63 states " "Ng(k)," Nada, undifferentiated energy/matter to give rise to the ninth manifestationThe ninth manifestation is known as the "Mother of all living things." Gerald MASsey maintained that the 'Y' in the names is NOT a primary sound, but rather one that evolved from 'G.' Naya or Nayya in many North A-MERi-ka Native tribal dialects means 'Serpent.' The Dogon God-Serpent and the KaMA'atu (Egyptian) Serpent are identical. The God-Serpent is called "The One who Dances in the Shadows." In the Dogon's pantheon, the seventh ancestor transformed into a Serpent (Note: It is also within the Dogon's system of life that it takes three male spirits [3] plus three female spirits [3] to bring forth the Seventh [7th] generation [Hu{e}man Beings, made of Spirit flowing through a Body]; Showing everyone that every thought becomes physical or is made to matter in the seventh generation of thought) From this sepulcher the ancestor Serpent rises up to dance underground in the darkness and to move toward the tomb of the oldest man (The Soul embedded in the Pineal Gland, which oversees the Third Ventricle). According to "AFRICAN ORIGIN OF BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY" by Dr. Richard King, states, "the name for serpent exists in hieroglyphics where 'Nkakais' synonymously interchanged with 'Nakaad' in the Egyptian hymn to Amen-RA, the Sun God is said to send his arrows against the ev-il serpent 'Naka.' The Chaldeans taught that in most ancient times a race of Extra-terra- astrals (Extraterrestrials), the Serpent Men, Nakash-Na, warred with Sut-Typhon[s](Titans). China pyramids were built by the Moi of Vietnam and the Nakhis of Southern China, remnant of the ancient Mu (Mu'urish) civilizations.
The AF-RA-KAM word 'N-Gu-ru,' derived the Vedic Sanskrit word 'Gu-ru,' meaning 'Wise' or 'Teacher'. There is also a chakRA called the Guru ChakRA, which is part of the Crown ChakRA. This is the most top center chakRA. It is two inches over the top of the head. The First [Third] Eye or Brow ChakRA (Ajna-ChakRA) is also called the Guru ChakRA
'Ngu-ni' an AmaZulu word that means "Ancient Ones." Ngu-ni is the group name for the Zulu, Xhosa, Swazi, Ndebele, Shangaan and Ngoni peoples.
'Ngo-nyama' means 'Lion.' It also is another "Praise Name" for an AmaZulu King.
'Negro' is a Spanish word meaning 'Black.' Negro is closely connected to the word 'Necro,' a Greek word, which means 'Dead.' The connection with "Black" and "dead" is not necessarily a Nega-tive (is derived Naga from "Black Serpent," "MAgnetic Current" or Ida in the Yoga traditions) one. The Shaman ruler depended upon journeys into other RE-ALms above and below to contact ancestors and forces and to achieve power. In the esoteric sense, when the Kundalini has been properly unleashed, it produces a multi-interdimensional process. Psychic abilities develops, such as clairvoyance, clairaudience, psychometry, telepathy, telekinesis, levitation, healing powers, prophesy, past-life memories, out-of body experiences (Astral travel, by activation of the Solar ChakRA and Soul travel, by the activation of the Crown ChakRA or Third Eye [First Eye]), direct awareness of auRAs and chakRAs, lucid dreams and vivid Life-like visions and contact with the (so-called 'Dead,') ancestors- spirit guides through inner voices. Thus, AF-RA-KAM (Black) people learnt how to communicate with the ancestors through the Mind via DNA memory.
'Negger,' means "Golden One," in KaMA'at (Egypt) Medu Neter. It is another form of Geb. It is also a termed for the "King-Initiate." It is the same word as Neb Heru (Kama'at) or Nibiru (Sumerian), the Golden Light (Auric Halo).
'Nigger' A word that denotes "Know-Ledge," or "WisDome" and NOT the WEBSTER'S DICTIONARY's former definition "One who is ignorance."
'Niger' A masculine derivative of the ancient KaMA'atu (Egyptian) word 'Ngu,' which means "Serpent King." It is a title that is bestowed upon the KaMA'atu (Egyptian) King (PhaRAoh) Priest, who has mastered the Healing science of the URAeus.
'Niger-ia' A feminine derivative of the ancient KaMA'atu (Egyptian) word 'Nga,' which means "Serpent Queen." It is a title that is bestowed upon the KaMA'atu (Egyptian) Queen, who has mastered the HeALing science of the URAeus.
'Nig-gina' is the Mesopotamian word for 'Justice.' In the Canaanite tradition, it is 'Sedek' as in MEL-CHI-SEDEK or the Biblical Archang-EL Micha-EL, the "Ang-EL of Justice."
'Nig-sisa' is the Mesopotamian word for 'Righteousness' In the Canaanite tradition, it is Misor. Therefore, together MISOR SEDEK becomes the Biblical, King of Righteousness (Peace) MELCHI-SEDEK.
'Niagra (River Fall)' means 'Black' A city in upstate New York boarding Canada.
"Nega Negast" An Ethiopian word which, means "(Serpent) King of Kings."
"Nag Hammadi" An ancient Aramaic and Hebrew scripture which means "The Serpent Black Guide."
'Naga-saki'- A Japanese city destroyed by an atomic bomb in 1945, by the U.S. and it means "Serpent Spirit" or "Serpent Life-Force.
'Naacal'[Nagal] (Mayax) The first Universal language; the language of Mu (EL Mu'uria) meaning "Serpent God." The EL Mu'urians (Lemurians) were great mariners, who founded settlements all over the Earth; often called the Moors (Mu'urs), the great Navigators. The first records of RE-li-gion are more than 70,000 years old. They tell us that a body of trained masters from Mu, called Naacals (Serpent Kings), were carrying to her various colonies and colonial empires, copies of the Motherland's Sacred Inspired RE-li-gion (Spirituality). These Naacals formed in each country uni-versities for the teaching of the priestcraft RE-li-gion, and the sciences. The priesthoods that were formed in these uni-versities, in turn taught the people. The Naacal writings are also called Neferit, or Medu Neter ("THE SACRED SYMBOLS OF MU" by James Churchward).
'Netjer' is the medu origin of the word Nigger, which means "God; God of Wis(z)-Dom(e) or Force of Nature". "Neteru-Ankh" KaMA'atu (Egyptian) Serpent God through whose body the Boat of Afu RA is pulled by twelve Amikhiu Neter (Gods), entering the tail and exiting the mouth, which results in Afu RA being transformed into KhepeRA, now towed into the sky by twelve goddesses.
'Nergal' is "the HeALer" in the Sumeria lore. In ancient Sumeria, the Anu-Naki ('Heavenly Serpent" "Sun Serpent" or "Serpent and the Rainbow") were Serpents, and Naki (E-NKI or s-NAKE) name for the Initiates of Chaldea, corresponding to the Nagas or "Snake-Kings" of the Buddhist legends, who preserves and guards the ancient truths. From these bloodlines has come the origin of the "Divine Right of Kings." There is a direct link between the D-RAcontia, the Lemurian, Atlantean architects and builders who were originally, the Brotherhood of the Snake/D-RAgON, initiated by the Sumerian god E. A. or En.ki, the Serpent (Kundalini and DNA) in the Garden of Eden (Universe and Body) who is credited with building temples and teaching the people. The Medu Neteru (Hieroglyphs), cosmological monuments and institutions of the peoples of Central and South America prove indisputably the existence of communication between AMER-ica, AF-RA-KA and India. Shub-Niggar-uth is an ancient Sumerian name for God, called later in Latin called Pan (which means ALL in ALL). It is a reference to the constellation Sirius.

Naki-EL- Another name of the Arch-AngEL UriEL. Naki-EL in Hebrew means "Serpent of God," or "Knowledge of God."
Dr. Joseph Rock, a representative of the US Department of Agriculture, discovered the Nakis, a colony of Mu'urs (so-called Blacks), in 1923 in Southern China (*previously mention). The wife of Anu-bis (An-pu, An [On] or Anu) was Anu-kis or A-Nuki-s (Anu-Naki, Oannes, Nommo). She sails the Celestial Boat of RA, with Sothis (Soquet, Sirius) and Satis.
Abe-Naki means "Father Serpent", a name of an Indigenous Mu'urish nation in Ameri-ka (so-called Native Ameri-kans).
'Naga,' means 'Serpent' in the Vedic Sanskrit. The Hindu Naga Serpent Gods of India are mention in the "UPANISHAD TEXTS". Naga (Nagini - fem) - Indian Serpent Ruler, son of Kadru (Kedar in Hebrew means 'Black'), daughter of Daksha, was a title of Spiritual Power among HU(e)Mans. It is first important to note that the Snake (Serpent Spirit) has been a symbol of wisdom, eternity healing, mystery, MAgical power, and holiness throughout most of the ancient non-western world. It's symbol is used today in medicine, and other healing professions (Caduceus; U-RAeus), - and its live descendants are hailed as sacred and used in everything from cancer drugs to sex potions. Naga represents the energy of Life and Death. The Naga spirits bring rain and rule the Underworld (the Belly or Navel ChakRA), the Nagas are manifestations of 'Agni' (fire), the Spirit Guardians; divided into four classes: 1. Heavenly 2. Divine 3. Earthly or 4. Hidden. The connections between the Blacks in AF-RA-KA and of India are strikingly similar, that even the names given to the various 'Naga' peoples of India and those of AF-RA-KA are the same in spelling and sound. For example, certain groups in Sudan are called 'Nagas,' whereas in India, Brahaman Vedic groups with racial features similar to the people of Sudan are also called 'Nagas.' "W. Robertson, "AN HISTORICAL DISQUISTION OF INDIA," Pub. 1794, Page 274. "The Brahmins, it is well known, borrowed religion, as well as, all other sciences of civilization, from the highly civilized Nagas, whom afterwards, they relentlessly persecuted." The languages spoken by the 'Naga's and other Dravidians such as Telegu, Malayalam, Kanada and others are related to the Kushite languages of East AF-RA-KA, such as Gala and those spoken by the Nilotic peoples. Moreover, these languages spread to West AF-RA-KA and far beyond India into Cambodia and South China. The ancient Indians belonged to the Kushite-Nubian AF-RA-KAM race. Of this group of ancient Af-RA-Kamau, the Naga People were and still are the largest subgroup of the Kushitic speaking branch of India. In fact, the 'Nagas' retain the title 'Naga' in various forms throughout AF-RA-KA and South Asia even today. There are many examples of the term 'Naga' still being used to describe various groups in AF-RA-KA and Asia. For example, two AF-RA-KAM tribes of West AF-RA-KA are called "Nuga-rmar-ta" and "Nago-mina" who were establishers of great civilizations in Ghana and Mali that existed in the region before 1000 B.C.E. In the Mossi tribe King is currently called 'Naga', which is 'Naba,' which later developed into 'Nuba' or 'Nubia.' The word 'Nahas' (Nahsi) is another word for 'Nubian.' Names of tribes and nationalities such as 'Nuer,' 'Nuba,' 'Nubian', and the North Ameri-kan/Delaware Nanticoke nation, the 'Le-Nape'or "EL Nabe" are all related to the Naga tribes of India and South Asia." In "THE MAGIC AND FOLK BELIEFS OF THE SOUTHERN NEGRO" by Newbile Niles Puckett, he states, "Thousands of Negroes from these serpent worshipping tribes were at this time sold into slaveryThey bore with them their cult of the snake. At the same period these Ewe speaking slaves [sic] were taken to Louisiana (mixed in with the IX-Olmec descendants, the Washitaw." Long before the Caucasian barbarians infiltrated India, the AF-RA-KAM Nagas, ruled India as well as a substantial portion of Asia from Arabia to China and the South Pacific, as well as the Indian Ocean region. In India, Af-RA-Kamau built the magnificent cities of Harrappa and Mohenjo-daro. It is one of the world's most glorious civilizations, 6000 years before the making of the plagiarized conceptualized JeSus (Ju-Zeus). In addition, the Babylonian word 'Nabu' or the Biblical (Heb-rew) word 'Nebo' is related to the word 'Nuba.' 'Nabu' or the Hebrew-Assyrian word 'Nebo' means 'Prophet or 'Eye ' as in the "ALL-Seeing Eye." 'Nabu' (Tehuti, Imhotep) was the son of Marduk (Asaru) was the scribe and herald of the gods. Moreover, 'Nabi' is the Arabic equivalent, which means "Master of Knowledge" and is derived from the ancient Kama'atu (Egyptian) word 'Neb.' meaning 'Gold.' 'Neb' (Serpent) spelt backwards is 'Ben,' (Phoenix-Bird or "Serpent in the Sky") short for "Ben Ben," meaning 'Source' or 'Spring.'
"Naga-RAj," means "King of Serpents" or "Serpent King."
"Naga-bhushan," means "One who wears Snakes as ornaments of Shiva."
"Nag-endRA, means "King of Snakes."
"Nag-esh," means, "Snake in Man."
"Naga Kanya," means "Snake of the RAinbow." The Naga Kanya a Seven-headed Naga, a counterpart of the God Vishnu. Naga-rjuna of India, for example, is shown with an aura, or halo, of Seven Serpents that is an indication of a very high degree of Initiation. The symbolisms of the Seven Serpents, usually cobras, are the (7) Seven ChakRAs, also on MAsonic aprons of certain systems in the Buddhistic ruins of Cambodia (Angk-or = "Ankh Ur" means "Living Light") and Ceylon. To this very day, the Hindus are taught that the end of every Universal Manifestation (Kalpa) ALL things are re-absorbed into Deity and the the interval between "creations." He reposes upon the Serpant Sesha (Duration) who is called Ananta, or, Endlessness.
"Naga Lakshmi," means "Queen of Snakes."
"Naga-mani," means the "Mind (Gem) of Serpents."
'NagAL' means "Serpent-God" and is the title of the medicine men, magicians and initiates in ancient Mexico, Central and South American Indigenous civilizations. NagAL is another name of Quetzalcoatl; the Mexican "Winged -Plumed Serpent God (Kundalini Shakti energy). "According to traditions, Quetzalcoatl is the instructor, builders, healers, astronomers, etc. He built roads, civilized the people and departed across the sea on MAgic "raft of Serpents." Quetzalcoatl was "recognized as the MESsiah by seers and astrologers; his head was RAyed like the Sun; his complexion was Black; his hair was woolly." In Uruguay, the word NagAL means 'Chief', a 'Teacher' or a "Serpent-God". 'The NagALs were known to the ancient Pre-Dravidian and the Sanskrit word for the South American NagALs is 'U-RAgas'. They are the present inhabitants of Naga-land, one of India's northeastern states. The Nagas were recognized as superior to humans. Those who later became the Nagas (Serpents in Sanskrit) in India, the Lung Dragons of China, and the Amarus in Peru, were elected to take the ancient wisdom to their respective countries. Later, a similar convocation would occur on Atlan-tis with certain Serpent MASters of that land chosen to take the Atlan-tean records and teachings to the Pan-Atlantic territories. These missionary Serpents became known in Mexico as the Quetzalcoatls, Kukulcans, Gucumatz and Viracochas; the Djedi/Jedi ("Stable Serpents") of Egypt, the Adder Moorish Druids of Britain (St. Patrick ran the Snakes out of Ireland), and the Dactyloi Serpents of Greece. (It is interesting to note that wherever the Lemurian or Atlan-tean Serpents established schools of wisdom, they built temples aligned with the Planet Venus, the stars of Sirius, the Orion constellation and the former pole star Thuban in Draco, which became associated with Saviors and Immortals).
In Buddhism, Wisdom has always been ties, symbolically, to the figure of the Serpent. The Buddha resting on the coils of the Naga Serpent Mucalinda sheltered the Buddha from a weeklong rainstorm by enfolding him in his coils; this tale is from Angkor Wat. The great temple-builders of the famous Ankgor Wat were considered the semi-divine 'Khmers' (Note: Khmers means "Creators" is derived from the AF-RA-KAM words 'Khnum [Kh-NUM],' the ancient KaMA'atu [Egyptian] name for "The Creator" and 'Nommo[s],' the KaMA'atu [Egyptian] derivative name of "The Creator" of the Dogon of Mali formerly of KaMA'at [Egypt]). The avenue leading to the Temple is lined with the Seven-headed Naga (the Kundalini's Seven energy centers chakRAs) and is in the exact configuration of the Constellation Draco of 12,500 years ago.
'Aguna' is the Solomon Islands Serpent Mother Goddess.
'Naggai' is Hebrew and it means "giving light: shining: brilliant: illuminating: enlightening: luminous intelligence." 'Nachash,' is HebREw and means 'Serpent.' In Arabic, it is 'Naya' (Nayya) or 'Nachaas'; in fact, the Arabic word for "Serpent People" is 'Naas,'(gNos-is) and this is the RE-ALm of the People or those made from mud "Black mud (MEL-anin)." 'Naasuwt' and even in English, it is s-Nake. Neke and Nakahi-Maori are also names for 'Serpents.' According to the "METU NETER" by Ra Un Nefer Amen pg 98, states"the hieroglyphic symbol for this part of the spirit is a serpent (Apep, Nak, from whence Nachash, - the "serpent" that spoke to the woman in the Garden of Eden). This part of the spirit is composed of subtle electro-magnetic energies that have the function of animating Man's life, especially the physical body. Hence, the name "animal spirit," or "anima and animus," as it was called in the Latin spiritual tradition. Our modern use of the term "animal" to denote the creatures that are thus identified is an example of muddling thinking. All things in this world are infused with this animating spirit."
'Nazarene' (Nasarene, Naaserene or Naas) is a Heb-rew (Het Heru) word which means "Aider, Helper or Friend;" according to "WEBSTER'S DICTIONARY" means "a native or resident of Nazareth 2a: Christian" From the Heb-rew (Het Heru) word 'Nazar-ene,' 'Nasir' or 'Nasar'/ 'Anasar' or 'Naas;' the Greek word 'Gnosis' or 'gNosis,' which means 'knowledge,' 'recognition' or 'intuitive' and the word Greek word 'Essene,' which is derives the word Essence, meaning "the individual," 'real,' or ultimate Nature (Neter) of a thing 2: something that exists: ENTITY. The 'Essene' "a member of a monastic brotherhood of (real) Jews (Heb-rews/Het Heru) in Palestine from the 2nd century B.C. to the 2nd century A.D." Both words are derived from the Heb-rew word Nazi-r.
'Nazareth' a town in Palestine, which did NOT exist until after the so-called death of Jesus Christ.
'Nazirite' or 'Nazarite' according to "WEBSTER'S DICTIONARY' means "a (real) Jew (Heb-rew or Het Heru, the "House of [Heru]-Light) of biblical times consecrated to God by a vow esp. to avoid drinking wine, cutting the hair, and being defiled by a corpse." The German word 'Nazi,' the German fascist party controlled under Hitler in 1933 to 1945, is also derived from the Heb-rew word 'Nazi-r' or 'Nazi-rite.' In addition, the "HOLY BIBLE" speaks of Mount 'Nisir.' The "HOLY BIBLE" states that Jesus was a 'Nazarene,' from Nazareth (Eventhough, Nazareth was NOT a town until years later after the so-called crucifixtion (crucifiction). Hence, the origin of the "HOLY BIBLE NEW TESTAMENT" Matthew 10:16 verse "Be ye therefore wise as Serpents, yet gentle as doves."
In China, the Naga is given the form of the DRAgON, also called the "DRAgON Spirit" and has a direct association with the Emperor-King and is known as the "Son of Heaven." In Tibet, they are still known in a symbolic sense and are called "Lu (D-RAg-On)!" In the Sumerian lore man was named LuLu (SupREme D-RAgON of D-RAg-ONs). The Chinese are even said to have originated with the Serpent demi-gods and even to speak their language, Naga-Krita (it has been scientifically, proving that the Chinese are from the Ngu-AF-RA-KAM descent). For a place that has no Serpents, Tibet, they are still known in a symbolic sense and are called "Lu!" (Naga). Nagarjuna called in Tibetan, Lu-trub. It has a equivalency to the Burmese 'Nats', or "God-Serpents". Discoveries dating back 6,000 years before Christ show AF-RA-KAMau (Black) settlers called Natufians in Palestine. Gerald Massey, a French anthropologist, claims, "The sole race that can be traced among the aborigines all over the Earth, or below it, is the dark race of negrito type."
'Nahua' is a Mexican word which, means 'Serpent'
Naga is found even in the so-called Western traditions. One simple example is the Ancient Greek Goddess, Athena. She is known as a warrior Goddess as well as the Goddess of Wisdom; her symbol being the Serpent as displayed on her personal shield.
Philo (Arrius Piso) stated that it was in Kashmir that A-POL-lonius of Tyana, a Pythagorean philosopher (a pseudonym for Arrius. A fictional character of Saul (Sol, Roman Sun-God and changed name to Paul from A-POL-lo, another Roman Sun-God) became instructed by the 'Nagas' and completed his initiation into the mysteries.

Naga: The Serpent
by Soror Ourania
Reprinted from Thelemix and Therion Rising
The word Naga is rooted in Sanskrit and means "Serpent". In the East Indian pantheon it is connected with the Serpent Spirit and the Dragon Spirit. It has a equivalency to the Burmese Nats, or god-serpents. In the Esoteric Tradition it is synonymous for Adepts, or Initiates. In India and Egypt, and even in Central and South America, the Naga stands for one who is wise.
Nagarjuna of India, for example, is shown with an aura, or halo, of seven serpents, which is an indication of a very high degree of Initiation. The symbolisms of the seven serpents, usually cobras, are also on Masonic aprons of certain systems in the Buddhistic ruins of Cambodia (Angkor = Ankh Ur or "Living Light") and Ceylon. The great temple-builders of the famous Angkor Wat were considered to be the semi-divine Khmers. The avenue leading to the Temple is lined with the seven-headed Naga. And even in Mexico, we find the 'Naga' which becomes 'Nagal.' In China, the Naga is given the form of the Dragon and has a direct association with the Emperor and is known as the "Son of Heaven"...while in Egypt the same association is termed "King-Initiate." The Chinese are even said to have originated with the Serpent demi-gods and even to speak their language, Naga-Krita. For a place that has no serpents, Tibet, they are still known in a symbolic sense and are called 'Lu!' (Naga). Nagarjuna called in Tibetan, Lu-trub.
In the Western traditions we find the same ubiquity for the Naga, or SerpentOf course, in Genesis the Serpent is a Naga who instructs the new infant (humanity) in what is called the Knowledge of Good and Evil. The Christian church has, unfortunately transformed the Initiate-Teacher into a tempting and negative demon-characterNaga is one of a handful of rare words surviving the loss of the first universal language (Naacal). In Buddhism, Wisdom has always been ties, symbolically, to the figure of the Serpent. In the Western Tradition it can be found that Christ in the "HOLY BIBLE NEW TESTAMENT Matthew 10:16," stated, "Be ye therefore wise as serpents, and harmless as doves." In all mythological language, the snake is also an emblem of immortality. Its endless representation with its tail in its mouth (Ouroboros), and the constant renewal of its skin and vigor, enliven the symbols of continued youth and eternity. The Serpent's reputation for positive medicinal and/or life-preserving qualities has also contributed to the honors of the Serpent as still seen by the employment of the Caduceus. To this very day, the Hindus are taught that the end of every Universal Manifestation (Kalpa) all things are re-absorbed into Deity and the interval between 'creations.' He reposes upon the Serpant Sesha (Duration) who is called Ananta, or, Endlessness. (See OPHIOLATREIA by Hargrave Jennings). -G-R, NETYR, NIGER, NEGRO, "NIGGER," NIGGA, THE ORIGIN OF A SACRED WORD

"Thou shall not take the name of the Lord, thy God in vain," is one of the ten commandments, yet, the racist term "Nigger" a derivative of the original name for God, "N-G-R"(pronounced "Net-ger") is continually used and taken to insult. The term "Nigger" has its origins in the sacred and divine title for "God," and came from the Egyptian WORD FOR GOD. That word is "Net-yer" or "Net-ger" from which the English terms "nature" and "nurture" came from. The idea of God being nature and nature being God, comes from the African and Egyptian idea of what God is which shows down to the similarities in the terms used to describe aspects of the Godhead.

THE SACRED "N" IN THE AFRICAN AND AFRO-ASIATIC LANGUAGES

The letter "N" is one of the most important prefixes in the African, Afro-Asiatic, Indo-Negroid, Negro-Australoid, Melanesian, Australian Aborigine, Austric, Kong-San (Bushmanoid), Sudroid languages. In fact, the sacred "N" as in "Ni-han" (Rising Sun) OR "NG" as in "ChaNG," (ChaNGo in Manding-Congo), "Ndong" in Vietnamese (Ndongo (Angolan Kingdom) in African Manding-Congo languages) is also found in both Chinese and Japanese. In fact ancient Chinese, Vietnamese, South Indian, SriLankan, Melanesian, Australian Aboriginal and modern Japanese show strong similarities to Bantu (proto-historic Sahara, Niger-Congo), languages (see "African Presence Early Asia," by Ivan Van Sertima and Runoko Rashidi) See also the works of Clyde A. Winters also go to http://community.webtv.net/nubianem (HISTORY TIMELINE) and http://www.cwo.com/~lucumi/runoko.html

The letter "N" is also the word that denotes any title pertaining to human beings. In fact in Bantu or Niger-Congo and Cushic languages, the letter "N" is found as the first letter in many names. For example the name "Ndaba," = "counsil" while the name "Ndabaningi" is the first name of Africans in region thereof.

HOW THE WORD FOR GOD, "N-G-R" (Net-ger) became Niger, Negro and "Nigger"

The ancient Egyptians called their Pharaohs "N-G-R" (Net-ger) because the Egyptian Pharaoh was seen as a representation of the sun and the Sun God. The original Pharaohs who were pure Black Africans SAW BLACK SKIN AS SACRED AND A DIRECT BLESSING FROM THE SUN GOD, ATEN. In fact Blackness and black skin became associated with God and the sun. BLACK PEOPLE WERE POWERFUL, CULTURALLY ADVANCED, MILITARILY SUPERIOR, BLACK/DARKBROWN IN COMPLEXION, STRONG STATURE, TALL AND DESCRIBED AS A "HANDSOME" RACE , (SEE HERODOTUS, "THE HISTORIES, DESCRIPTIONS OF "ETHIOPIANS" OF AFRICA AND SOUTH INDIA).

The recognition of the Pharaoh as a living God and the black skin as a blessing spread worldwide to other cultures. In fact the term "Net-ger" became the Ethiopian "Negus" or "Negashi."

In the Sudroid (Indo-Negroids of India) languages of India, which are part of the Cushite branch of the African languages, the term "Naga" denotes original or first.
In fact, in ancient India, the people with the blackest skins were respected and held to igh esteem, unlike today where the racist, colonialist and alien concept of "varna" or castecolor racism places Sudroids, Indo-Negroids, Black Tribals, Dalits, Negro-Australoids and other BLACKS AT THE VERY BOTTOM OF iNDIAN SOCIETY.
See www.dalitstan.org/books/sudroid

The term "Ngola" (Angola) means "King" in the Angolan languages. This term was mistaken by the Portugese to mean the DESCRIBE "Ndongo," the kingdom.

The first people to corrupt the term "N-G-R" were the Roman invaders of Egypt who may have heard the term used to describe the
leader of Egypt or Nubia. The term "Niger" was later used to mean any Black/Negroid person that the Romans saw in Africa or anywhere else.

The Romans tried to invade Nubia during the early years of the Christian Era. Then, Nubia-Kush was ruled by a line of Queens called "Ka'andak'es (Candace). One such queen and her son defeated the Roman army at Aswan, (see http://community.webtv.net/paulnubiaempire ) Egypt and burned the Roman Fort.
AND CARRIED THE BRONZE HEAD OF ROMAN EMPEROR AGUSTUS TO THE CUSHITE (NUBIAN) CITY OF NAPATA.
The Romans colonized and spread the Latin language to Europe. Due to this linguistic influence, the Latin term "Niger" became "Negre" in French and "Negro" in Spanish.

The English colonialists and slave entity borrowed the term "Negro" from the Spanish. The term for Black people in England before Shakespeare was "Moor" or "Black-a-Moor." The English slave owners degraded and defiled the entire name by turning the Negro into a slave and turning the original term "Ned-ger" or "God" into the racist term "Nigger." One can say that they have insulted the sacred name for "God" and have oppressed the original people created by God. This phenomena is due to their own sense of inferiority.


LIST OF NAMES FROM THE ORIGINAL TERM FOR "GOD" AND "NEGRO/BLACK"

N-G-R (net-ger) Ancient Egyptian for God

Net-tyr (Net-ger) Khemitic/ancient Egyptian = God, Sacred, Nature

Net-tyr (Net-ger)

Negus (Nee-goos) Ethiopian term for "Emperor."

Negashi (Nee-gah-shee) Ethiopian term for "Emperor or King."

Niger: Roman/Latin term for Black or Negro

Negre: French for Negro or Black

Negro: Spanish for Black

"Nigger" racist, corrupted term used to insult, degrade, enfuriate.

Nigga: (pronounced "nig-gah), used as a term of endearment by some youth; rejected by others as sounding too close to the racist term "Nigger."

Netzer (as in Nazerine) Hebrew for "root, original)

Naga (South Indian and African term) (Black Negro tribes of India and Africa - Sudan to Nigeria) = original

Nagaloka - The Black Negro, Negro-Australoid, Indo-Negroid/Sudroid
lands and people in Asia (India to Indonesia)
(see more from the book, "Nagaloka,' by M. Gopinath (Dalit Sahitya Akademy, Bangalore, India) also see "A History of Racism and Terrorism, and Overcoming," at www.xlibris.com

Ndaba (Manding-Congo/South Africa) = A counsil of wise people, kings, chiefs, ect.

Ngola (Manding-C.. "King/Lord"

Nkosi = God (Zulu, South Africa)

Ngosi = blessing (Ibo, Nigeria)

Nyamekye = God's Gift (Akan, Ghana)

Nile (Egypt, Sacred River)

Niger (West Africa; Sacred River)

Niger (country in West Africa)

Nigeria (country in West Africa)

Nugarmatta: Term used by Africans of Ghana Empire to call themselves (see writings of Ibn Buttata -- National Geographic Magazine



So this is the true story and origins of the "N" word.
NEVER FORGET THAT THE WORD "NIGGER" CAME FROM THE KHEMITE/EGYPTIAN TERM FOR "GOD" AND AND THAT WORD IS "N-G-R" OR "NET-GER."

iN CONCLUSION, IT IS TIME THAT NEGROES, PAN-NEGROES (PAN-AFRICANS, MELANESIAN NEGROIDS, INDO-NEGROIDS, NEGRO-AUSTRALOIDS) AND BLACKS WORLDWIDE START BELIEVING THAT THE NEGRO IS OF THE GODHEAD AND SHOULD START BELIEVING IT, HAVING SELF-CONFIDENCE, BELIEF IN SELF AND IN ABILITY.

IT IS TIME TO REVIVE AND RETURN TO BLACK/NEGRO RELIGIONS THAT HELP DEVELOP THE MIND, BODY, SOUL, SPIRIT AND THE BELIEF IN SELF, RATHER THAN IN ANOTHER PEOPLE'S SHRINES, HOLY BOOKS, HOLY LANDS AND GODS OR IN RELIGIONS THAT PREACH OF BLACKS BEING "CURSED" OR PREACH "BROTHERHOOD" ON ONE SIDE OF THEIR FACES WHILE COMMITTING ETHNIC CLEANSING, SANCTIFIED RACISM AND GENOCIDE ON BLACKS.

IT IS TIME TO WORK ON THE PAN-AFRICAN BLACK WORLD RENAISSANCE.









And now our eyes are open just a little wider.. maybe we can appreciate the brilliance of Paul Mooney just a little more...

NIGGER NIGGER - PAUL MOOENY









WHAT'S UP, MY "NAGA"?






..





*ANOTHER DISCUSSION BUT IT SEEMS HE ONLY WENT AS FAR BACK AS THE LATIN MEANING











Early Americans

BLACK CIVILIZATIONS OF
ANCIENT AMERICA (MUU-LAN),
MEXICO (XI)

Gigantic stone head of Negritic African
during the Olmec (Xi) Civilization

By Paul Barton

Negritic African The earliest people in the Americas were people of the Negritic African race, who entered the Americas perhaps as early as 100,000 years ago, by way of the bering straight and about thirty thousand years ago in a worldwide maritime undertaking that included journeys from the then wet and lake filled Sahara towards the Indian Ocean and the Pacific, and from West Africa across the Atlantic Ocean towards the Americas.
According to the Gladwin Thesis, this ancient journey occurred, particularly about 75,000 years ago and included Black Pygmies, Black Negritic peoples and Black Australoids similar to the Aboriginal Black people of Australia and parts of Asia, including India.


Ancient African terracotta portraits 1000 B.C. to 500 B.C.

African terracotta Recent discoveries in the field of linguistics and other methods have shown without a doubt, that the ancient Olmecs of Mexico, known as the Xi People, came originally from West Africa and were of the Mende African ethnic stock. According to Clyde A. Winters and other writers (see Clyde A. Winters website), the Mende script was discovered on some of the ancient Olmec monuments of Mexico and were found to be identical to the very same script used by the Mende people of West Africa. Although the carbon fourteen testing date for the presence of the Black Olmecs or Xi People is about 1500 B.C., journies to the Mexico and the Southern United States may have come from West Africa much earlier, particularly around five thousand years before Christ. That conclusion is based on the finding of an African native cotton that was discovered in North America. It’s only possible manner of arriving where it was found had to have been through human hands. At that period in West African history and even before, civilization was in full bloom in the Western Sahara in what is today Mauritania. One of Africa’s earliest civilizations, the Zingh Empire, existed and may have lived in what was a lake filled, wet and fertile Sahara, where ships criss-crossed from place to place.

ANCIENT AFRICAN KINGDOMS PRODUCED
OLMEC TYPE CULTURES

The ancient kingdoms of West Africa which occupied the Coastal forest belt from Cameroon to Guinea had trading relationships with other Africans dating back to prehistoric times. However, by 1500 B.C., these ancient kingdoms not only traded along the Ivory Coast, but with the Phoenicians and other peoples. They expanded their trade to the Americas, where the evidence for an ancient African presence is overwhelming. The kingdoms which came to be known by Arabs and Europeans during the Middle Ages were already well established when much of Western Europe was still inhabited by Celtic tribes. By the 5th Century B.C., the Phoenicians were running comercial ships to several West African kingdoms. During that period, iron had been in use for about one thousand years and terracotta art was being produced at a great level of craftsmanship. Stone was also being carved with naturalistic perfection and later, bronze was being used to make various tools and instruments, as well as beautifully naturalistic works of art.


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The ancient West African coastal and interior Kingdoms occupied an area that is now covered with dense vegetation but may have been cleared about three to four thousand years ago. This includes the regions from the coasts of West Africa to the South, all the way inland to the Sahara. A number of large kingdoms and empires existed in that area. According to Blisshords Communications, one of the oldest empires and civilizions on earth existed just north of the coastal regions into what is today Mauritania. It was called the Zingh Empire and was highly advanced. In fact, they were the first to use the red, black and green African flag and to plant it throughout their territory all over Africa and the world.

The Zingh Empire existed about fifteen thousand years ago. The only other civilizations that may have been in existance at that period in history were the Ta-Seti civilization of what became Nubia-Kush and the mythical Atlantis civilization which may have existed out in the Atlantic, off the coast of West Africa about ten to fifteen thousand years ago. That leaves the question as to whether there was a relationship between the prehistoric Zingh Empire of West Africa and the civilization of Atlantis, whether the Zingh Empire was actually Atlantis, or whether Atlantis if it existed was part of the Zingh empire. Was Atlantis, the highly technologically sophisticated civilization an extension of Black civilization in the Meso-America and other parts of the Americas?


Shaman or priest
Stone carving of a Shaman or priest
from Columbia’s San Agustine Culture


African Oni
An ancient West African Oni or King holding similar artifacts
as the San Agustine culture stone carving of a Shaman


The above ancient stone carvings (500 t0 1000 B.C.) of Shamans of Priest-Kings clearly show distinct similarities in instruments held and purpose. The realistic carving of an African king or Oni and the stone carving of a shaman from Columbia’s San Agustin Culture indicates diffusion of African religious practices to the Americas. In fact, the region of Columbia and Panama were among the first places that Blacks were spotted by the first Spanish explorers to the Americas.
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From the archeological evidence gathered both in West Africa and Meso-America, there is reason to believe that the African Negritics who founded or influenced the Olmec civilization came from West Africa. Not only do the collosol Olmec stone heads resemble Black Africans from the Ghana area, but the ancient religious practices of the Olmec priests was similar to that of the West Africans, which included shamanism, the study of the Venus complex which was part of the traditions of the Olmecs as well as the Ono and Dogon People of West Africa. The language connection is of significant importance, since it has been found out through decipherment of the Olmec script, that the ancient Olmecs spoke the Mende language and wrote in the Mend script, which is still used in parts of West Africa and the Sahara to this day.

ANCIENT TRADE BETWEEN THE AMERICAS AND AFRICA

The earliest trade and commercial activities between prehistoric and ancient Africa and the Americas may have occurred from West Africa and may have included shipping and travel across the Atlantic. The history of West Africa has never been properly researched. Yet, there is ample evidence to show that West Africa of 1500 B.C. was at a level of civilization approaching that of ancient Egypt and Nubia-Kush. In fact, there were similarities between the cultures of Nubia and West Africa, even to the very similarities between the smaller scaled hard brick clay burial pyramids built for West African Kings at Kukia in
pre Christian Ghana and their counterparts in Nubia, Egypt and Meso-America.

Although West Africa is not commonly known for having a culture of pyramid-building, such a culture existed although pyramids were created for the burial of kings and were made of hardened brick. This style of pyramid building was closer to what was built by the Olmecs in Mexico when the first Olmec pyramids were built. In fact, they were not built of stone, but of hardened clay and compact earth.

Still, even though we don’t see pyramids of stone rising above the ground in West Africa, similar to those of Egypt, Nubia or Mexico, or massive abilisks, collosal monuments and structures of Nubian and Khemitic or Meso-American civilization. The fact remains, they did exist in West Africa on a smaller scale and were transported to the Americas, where conditions
such as an environment more hospitable to building and free of detriments such as malaria and the tsetse fly, made it much easier to build on a grander scale.

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Meso-American pyramid
Meso-American pyramid with stepped appearance,
built about 2500 years ago


Pyramid of Sakkara
Stepped Pyramid of Sakkara, Egypt, built over
four thousand years ago, compare to Meso-American pyramid


Large scale building projects such as monuent and pyramid building was most likely carried to the Americas by the same West Africans who developed the Olmec or Xi civilization in Mexico. Such activities would have occurred particularly if there was not much of a hinderance and obstacle to massive, monumental building and construction as there was in the forest and malaria zones of West Africa. Yet, when the region of ancient Ghana and Mauritania is closely examined, evidence of large prehistoric towns such as Kukia and others as well as various monuments to a great civilization existed and continue to exist at a smaller level than Egypt and Nubia, but significant enough to show a direct connection with Mexico’s Olmec civilization.

The similarities between Olmec and West African civilization includes racial, religious and pyramid bilding similarities, as well as the similarities in their alphabets and scripts as well as both cultures speaking the identical Mende language, which was once widespread in the Sahara and was spread as far East as Dravidian India in prehistoric times as well as the South Pacific.

During the early years of West African trade with the Americas, commercial seafarers made frequent voyages across the Atlantic. In fact, the oral history of a tradition of seafaring between the Americas and Africa is part of the history of the Washitaw People, an aboriginal Black nation who were the original inhabitants of the Mississippi Valley region, the former Louisiana Territories and parts of the Southern United States. According to their oral traditions, their ancient ships criss-crossed the Atlantic Ocean between Africa and the Americas on missions of trade and commerce..

Some of the ships used during the ancient times, perhaps earlier than 7000 B.C. (which is the date given for cave paintings of the drawings and paintings of boats in the now dried up Sahara desert) are similar to ships used in parts of Africa today. These ships were either made of papyrus or planks lashed with rope, or hollowed out tree trunks.

These ancient vessels were loaded with all type of trade goods and not only did they criss-cross the Atlantic but they traded out in the Pacific and settled there as well all the way to California. In
fact, the tradition of Black seafarers crossing the Pacific back and forth to California is much older than the actual divulgance of that fact to the first Spanish explorers who were told by the American Indians that Black men with curly hair made trips from California’s shores to the Pacific on missions of trade.

On the other hand, West African trade with the Americas before Columbus and way back to proto historic times (30,000 B.C. to 10,000 B.C.), is one of the most important chapters in ancient African history. Yet, this era which begun about 30,000 years ago and perhaps earlier (see the Gladwin Thesis, by C.S.Gladwin, Mc Graw Hill Books), has not been part of the History of Blacks in the Americas. Later on in history, particularly during the early Bronze Age.

However, during the latter part of the Bronze Age, particularly between 1500 B.C. to 1000 B.C., when the Olmec civilization began to bloom and flourish, new conditions in the Mediterranean made it more difficult for West Africans to trade by sea with the region, although their land trade accross the Sahara was flourishing. By then, Greeks, Phoenicians, Assyrians, Babylonians and others were trying to gain control of the sea routes and the trading ports of the region. Conflicts in the region may have pushed the West Africans to strengthen their trans-Atlantic trade with the Americas and to explore and settle there.


Ancient sea-going vessel
Ancient sea-going vessel used by the Egyptians
and Nubians in ancient times.


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West African Trade and Settlement in the Americas Increases Due to Conflicts in the Mediterranean

The flowering of the Olmec Civilization occurred between 1500 B.C. to 1000 B.C., when over twenty-two collosal heads of basalt were carved representing the West African Negritic racial type.
This flowering continued with the appearance of "Magicians," or Shamanistic Africans who observed and charted the Venus planetary complex (see the pre-Christian era statuette of a West African Shaman in the photograph above)
These "Magicians," are said to have entered Mexico from West Africa between 800 B.C. to 600 B.C. and were speakers of the Mende language as well as writers of the Mende script or the Bambara script, both which are still used in parts of West Africa and the Sahara.

These Shamans who became the priestly class at Monte Alban during the 800’s to 600’s B.C. ( ref. The History of the African-Olmecs and Black Civilization of the Americas From Prehistoric Times to the Present Era), had to have journied across the Atlantic from West Africa, for it is only in West Africa, that the religious practices and astronomical and religious practices and complex (Venus, the Dogon Sirius observation and the Venus worship of the Afro-Olmecs, the use of the ax in the worship of Shango among he Yoruba of West Africa and the use of the ax in Afro-Olmec worship as well as the prominence of the thunder God later known as Tlalock among the Aztecs) are the same as those practiced by the Afro-Olmec Shamans. According to Clyde Ahmed Winters (see "Clyde A. Winters" webpage on "search."

Thus, it has been proven through linguistic studies, religious similarities, racial similarities between the Afro-Olmecs and West Africans, as well as the use of the same language and writing script, that the Afro-Olmecs came from the Mende-Speaking region of West Africa, which once included the Sahara.

Sailing and shipbuilding in the Sahara is over twenty thousand years old. In fact, cave and wall paintings of ancient ships were displayed in National Geographic Magazine some years ago. Such ships which carried sails and masts, were among the vessels that swept across the water filled Sahara in prehistoric times. It is from that ship-building tradition that the Bambara used their knowledge to build Thor Hayerdhal’s papyrus boat Ra I which made it to the West Indies from Safi in Morroco years ago. The Bambara are also one of the West African nationalities who had and still have a religious and astronomical complex similar to that of the ancient Olmecs, particularly in the area of star gazing.

A journey across the Atlantic to the Americas on a good current during clement weather would have been an easier task to West Africans of the Coastal and riverine regions than it would have been through the use of caravans criss-crossing the hot by day and extremely cold by night Sahara desert. It would have been much easier to take a well made ship, similar to the one shown above and let the currents take it to the West Indies, and may have taken as long as sending goods back and forth from northern and north-eastern Africa to the interior and coasts of West Africa’s ancient kingdoms. Add to that the fact that crossing the Sahara would have been no easy task when obsticales such as the hot and dusty environment, the thousands of miles of dust, sand and high winds existed. The long trek through the southern regions of West Africa through vallies, mountains and down the many rivers to the coast using beasts of burden would have been problematic particularly since malaria mosquitoes harmful to both humans and animals would have made the use of animals to carry loads unreliable.

Journeys by ship along the coast of West Africa toward the North, through the Pillars of Heracles,
eastward on the Mediterran to Ports such as Byblos in Lebanon, Tyre or Sydon would have been two to three times as lengthy as taking a ship from Cape Verde, sailing it across the Atlantic and landing in North-Eastern Brazil fifteen hundred miles away, or Meso America about 2400 miles away. The distance in itself is not what makes the trip easy. It is the fact that currents
which are similar to gigantic rivers in the ocean, carry ships and other vessels from West Africa to the Americas with relative ease.

West Africans during the period of 1500 B.C. to 600 B.C. up to 1492 A.D. may have looked to the Americas as a source of trade, commerce and a place to settle and build new civlilzations. During the period of 1500 B.C. to 600 B.C., there were many conflicts in the Mediterranean involving the Kushites, Egyptians, Assyrians, Phoenicians, Sea Peoples, Persians, Jews and others. Any kingdom or nation of that era who wanted to conduct smoothe trade without complications would have tried to find alternative trading partners. In fact, that was the very reason why the Europeans decided to sail westwared in their wearch for India and China in 1492 A.D. They were harrassed by the Arabs in the East and had to pay heavy taxes to pass through the region.

Still, most of the Black empires and kingdoms such as Kush, Mauri, Numidia, Egypt, Ethiopia and others may have had little difficulty conducting trade among their neighbors since they also were among the major powers of the region who were dominant in the Mediterranean.
South of this northern region to the south-west, Mauritania (the site of the prehistoric Zingh Empire) Ghana, and many of the same nationalities who ushered in the West African renaissance of the early Middle Ages were engaged in civilizations and cultures similar to those of Nubia, Egypt and the Empires of the Afro-Olmec or Xi (Shi) People.

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Nubian-Kushite King and Queen (circa 1000 B.C.)

Nubian-Kushite King and Queen It is believed that there was a Nubian presence in Mexico and that the West African civilizations were related to that of the Nubians, despite the distance between the two centers of Black civilization in Africa. There is no doubt that in ancient times there were commercial ties between West Africa and Egypt. In fact, about 600 B.C., Nikau, a Pharaoh of Egypt sent ships to circumnavigate Africa and later on about 450 B.C., Phoenicians did the same, landing in West Africa in the nation now called Cameroon. There they witnessed what may have been the celebration of a Kwanza-like harvest festival, where "cymbals, horns," and other instruments as well as smoke and fire from buring fields could be seen from their ships.

At that period in history, the West African cultures and civilizations, which were offshoots of much earlier southern Saharan cultures, were very old compared to civilizations such as Greece or Babylon. In fact, iron was being used by the ancient West Africans as early as 2600 years B.C. and was so common that there was no "bronze age" in West Africa, although bronze was used for ornaments and instruments or tools.

A combination of Nubians and West Africans engaged in mutual trade and commerce along the coasts of West Africa could have planned many trips to and from the Americas and could have conducted a crossing about 1500 B.C. and afterwards. Massive sculptures of the heads of typical Negritic Africans were carved in the region of South Mexico where the Olmec civilization flourished. Some of these massive heads of basalt contain the cornrow hairstyle common among West African Blacks, as well as the kinky coiled hair common among at least 70 percent of all Negritic people, (the other proportion being the Dravidian Black race of India and the Black Australoids of Australia and South Asia).


Afro-Olmec head
Collossol Afro-Olmec head of basalt wearing
Nubian type war helmet, circa 1100 B.C.


Afro-Olmecs Came from the Mende Regions of West Africa

Although archeologists have used the name "Olmec," to refer to the Black builders of ancient Mexico’s first civilizations, recent discoveries have proven that these Afro-Olmecs were West Africans of the Mende language and cultural group. Inscriptions found on ancient monuments in parts of Mexico show that the script used by the ancient Olmecs was identical to that used by the ancient and modern Mende-speaking peoples of West Africa. Racially, the collosal stone heads are identical in features to West Africans and the language deciphered on Olmec monuments is identical to the Mende language of West Africa, (see Clyde A. Winters) on the internet.

The term "Olmec" was first used by archeologists since the giant stone heads with the features of West African Negritic people were found in a part of Mexico with an abundance of rubber trees. The Maya word for rubber was "olli, and so the name "Olmec," was used to label the Africoid Negritic people represented in the faces of the stone heads and found on hundreds of terracotta figurines throughout the region.

Yet, due to the scientific work done by deciphers and linguists, it has been found out that the ancient Blacks of Mexico know as Olmecs, called themselves the Xi People (She People).
Apart from the giant stone heads of basalt, hundreds of terracotta figurines and heads of people of Negritic African racial reatures have also been found over the past hundred years in Mexico and other parts of Meso-America as well as the ancient Black-owned lands of the Southern U.S. (Washitaw Proper,(Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Oklahoma, Arkansas), South America’s Saint Agustin Culture in the nation of Colombia, Costa Rica, and other areas) the "Louisiana Purchase,"
lands, the south-eastern kingdom of the Black Jamassee, and other places including Haiti, see
the magazine Ancient American).

Various cultural clues and traces unique to Africa as well as the living descendants of prehistoric and ancient African migrants to the Americas continue to exist to this very day. The Washitaw Nation of Louisiana is one such group (see www.Hotep.org), the Garifuna or Black Caribs of the Caribbean and Central America is another, the descendants of the Jamasse who live in Georgia and the surrounding states is another group. There are also others such as the Black Californian of Queen Calafia fame (the Black Amazon Queen mentioned in the book Journey to Esplandian, by Ordonez de Montalvo during the mid 1500’s).

Cultural artefacts which connect the ancient Blacks of the Americas with Africa are many. Some of these similarities can be seen in the stone and terracotta works of the ancient Blacks of the Americas. For example, the African hairline is clearly visible in some stone and terracotta works, including the use of cornrows, afro hair style, flat "mohawk" style similar to the type used in Africa, dreadlocks, braided hair and even plain kinky hair. The African hairline is clearly visible on a fine stone head from Veracruz Mexico, carved between 600 B.C. to 400 B.C., the Classic Period of Olmec civilization. That particular statuette is about twelve inches tall and the distance from the head to the chin is about 17 centemeters. Another head of about 12 inches, not only posesses Negroid features, but the hair design is authentically West African and is on display at the National Museum of Mexico. This terracotta Africoid head also wears the common disk type ear plugs common in parts of Africa even today among tribes such as the Dinka and Shilluk.

One of the most impressive pieces of evidence which show a direct link between the Black Olmec or Xi People of Mexico and West Africans is the presence of scarification marks on some Olmec terracotta sculpture. These scarification marks clearly indicate a West African Mandinka (Mende) presence in prehistoric and ancient Meso-America. Ritual scarification is still practiced in parts of Africa and among the Black peoples of the South Pacific, however the Olmec scarification marks are not of South Pacific or Melanesian Black origins, since the patterns used on ancient Olmec sculpture is still common in parts of Africa. This style of scarification tatooing is still used by the Nuba and other Sudanese African people. In fact, the face of a young girl with keloid scarification on here face is identical to the very same keloid tatoos on the face of an ancient Olmec terracotta head from ancient Mexico. Similar keloid tattoos also appear on the arms of some Sudanese and are identical to similar keloid scars on the arms of some clay figures from ancient Olmec terracotta figurines of Negroid peoples of ancient Mexico.


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Bronze head of an ancient king from Benin
Bronze head of an ancient king from Benin, West Africa,
The tradition of fine sculpture in West Africa goes back long before 1000 B.C.


Afro-Olmec
Collosal head of Afro-Olmec (Xi) warrior-king, circa 1100 B.C.


Descendants of Ancient Africans in Recent America

In many parts of the Americas today, there are still people of African Negritic racial backgrounds who continue to exist either blended into the larger African-Americas population or are parts of separate, indigenous groups living on their own lands with their own unique culture and languages.

One such example is the Washitaw Nation who owned about one million square miles of the former Louisiana Territories, (see www.Hotep.org), but who now own only about 70,000 acres of all their former territory. The regaining of their lands from the U.S. was a long process which concluded partially in 1991, when they won the right to their lands in a U.S. court.

The Black Californian broke up as a nation during the late 1800’s after many years of war with the Spanish invaders of the South West, with Mexico and with the U.S. The blended into the Black population of California and their descendants still exist among the millions of Black Californians of today.

The Black Caribs or Garifunas of the Caribbean Islands and Central America fought with the English and Spanish from the late fifteen hundreds up to 1797, when the British sued for peace. The Garifuna were expelled from their islands but they prospered in Central America where hundreds of thousands live along the coasts today.

The Afro-Darienite is a significant group of pre-historic, pre-columbian Blacks who existed in South America and Central America. These Blacks were the Africans that the Spanish first saw during their exploration of the narrow strip of land between Columbia and Central America and who were described as "slaves of our lord" since the Spaniards and Europeans had the intention of enslaving all Blacks they found in the newly discovered lands.

The above mentioned Blacks of precolumbian origins are not Blacks wo mixed with the Mongoloid Indian population as occurred during the time of slavery. They were Blacks who were in some cases on their lands before the southward migrations of the Mongoloid Native Americans. In many cases, these Blacks had established civilizations in the Americas thousands of years ago.

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An early Black Californian
An early Black Californian, a member of the original Black
aboriginal people of California and the South Western U.S.


original Black nations of the Americas
A member of one of the original Black nations of the Americas,
the Afro-Darienite of Panama.


Stone carving of Negroid person
Stone carving of Negroid person found in area
close to Washitaw Territories, Southern U.S.

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THE USE OF ANCIENT AFRICAN SHIPS AND BOATS TO TRADE WITH THE AMERICAS

Protohistoric, prehistoric and ancient Negritic Africans were masters of the lands as well as the oceans. They were the first shipbuilders on earth and had to have used watercraft to cross from South East Asia to Australia about 60,000 years ago and from the West Africa/Sahara inland seas region to the Americas. The fact of the northern portion of Africa now known as a vast desert wasteland being a place of large lakes, rivers and fertile regions with the most ancient of civilizations is a fact that has been verified, (see African Presence in Early America, edt. Ivan Van Sertima and Runoko Rashidi, Transaction Publishers, New Bruinswick, NJ "The Principle of Polarity," by Wayne Chandler: 1994.)

From that region of Africa as well as East Africa, diffusions of Blacks towards the Americas as early as 30,000 B.C. are believed to have occurred based on findings in a region from Mexico to Brazil which show that American indians in the region include Negritic types (eg. Olmecs, Afro-Darienite, Black Californians, Chuarras, Garifunas and others). Much earlier journeys occurred by land sometime before 75,000 B.C. according to the Gladwin Thesis written by C.S. Gladwin. This migration occurred on the Pacific side of the Americas and was began by Africans with Affinities similar to the people of New Guinea, Tasmania, Solomon Islands and Australia. The earliest migrations of African Blacks through Asia then to the Americas seemed to have occurred exactly during the period that the Australian Aborigines and the proto-African ancestors of the Aborigines, Oceanic Negroids (Fijians, Solomon Islanders, Papua-New Guineans,and so on) and other Blacks spread throughout East Asia and the Pacific Islands about one hundred thousand years ago. The fact that these same Blacks are still among the world’s seafaring cultures and still regard the sea as sacred and as a place of sustinence is evidence of their ancient dependance on the sea for travel and exploration as well as for commerce and trade. Therefore, they would have had to build sea-worthy ships and boats to take them across the vast expanses of ocean, including the Atlantic, Indian Ocean (both the Atlantic and Indian Oceans were called the Ethiopean Sea, in the Middle Ages) and the Pacific Ocean.

During the historic period close to the early bronze or copper using period of world history (6000 B.C. to 4000 B.C. migrations of Africans from the Mende regions of West Africa and the Sahara across the Atlantic to the Americas may have occurred. In fact, the Mende agricultural culture was well established in West Africa and the Sahara during that period. Boats still criss-crossed the Sahara, as they had been doing for over ten thousand years previously. The ancient peoples of the Sahara, as rock paintings clearly show, were using boats and may have sailed from West Africa and the Sahara to the Americas, including the Washitaw territories of the Midwestern and Southern U.S. Moreover, it is believed by the aboriginal Black people of the former Washitaw Empire who still live in the Southern U.S., that about 6000 B.C., there was a great population shift from the region of Africa and the Pacific ocean, which led to the migrations of their ancestors to the Americas to join the Blacks who had been there previously.

As for the use of ships, ancient Negritic peoples and the original Negroid peoples of the earth may have began using boats very early in human history. Moreover, whatever boats were used did not have to be sophisticated or of huge size. In fact, the small, seaworthy "outrigger" canoe may have been spread from East Africa to the Indian Ocean and the Pacific by the earliest African migrants to Asia and the Pacific regions. Boats of papyrus, skin, sewed plank, log and hollowed logs were used by ancient Africans on their trips to various parts of the world.


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DESCENDANTS OF PRECOLUMBIAN BLACKS IN THE U.S., CARIBBEAN, CENTRAL AMERICA AND SOUTH AMERICA AND THE FIGHT FOR THE RETURN OF THEIR STOLEN OCCUPIED LANDS

IN THE MIDST OF THE REPARATIONS DEBATE THE ISSUE OF RETURNING THE LANDS OF THESE BLACKS WHO ANCESTORS WERE HERE IN THE U.S. AND AMERICAS BEFORE COLUMBUS HAS ALREADY BEEN DONE WITH ONE BLACK NATION OF THE LOUISIANA TERRITORIES


The experience of the Washitaw Nation (or Ouchita Nation) of the Southern United States is another piece of solid evidence for the fact of pre-Columbian African presence and settlement in the Americas and specifically in the United States. According to an article carried in the magazine, ’The Freedom Press Newsletter, (Spring, 1996), reprinted from Earthways, The Newsleter of the Sojourner Truth Farm School (August, 1995), the Washitaw were
(and still are) a nation of Africans who existed in the Southern U.S. and Mississippi Valley region long before the 16th century Europeans arrived and even before there were "Native Americans" on the lands the Washitaw once occupied and still occupy today.

According to the article, "the Washitaw Nation "governed three million acres of land in Louisiana,
Arkansas, Oklahoma, Texas and Mississippi. They were ship builders (similar to the Garifuna of the Caribbean, who are also of pre-Columbian West Afrucan Mandinka Muslim origins (according to Harold Lawrence in ’African Presence in Early America,edt. by Ivan Van Sertima).

What is even more facinating about this aspect of hidden history of Blacks in America before Columbus is that the Washitaw Nation was known and recognized as a separate, independant Black nation by the Spanish and French, who were in the Louisiana Territories and Texas areas. According to the present leader of the Washitaw Nation, "when Spain ceeded the Louisiana Territory to France, they excluded the land belonging to the Washitaw Nation. France did not include it in the "Louisiana Purchase," and according to the leader, "This land
is not part of the United States of America." That point was made in the newspaper, "The Capitol Spotlight, June 1992.

In fact, the courts agreed that the land was not part of the U.S. and that in fact the Washitaw (Ouchita) Nation was on the land long before European Colonization: therefore, in legal decisions made, some of the ancient territory was returned. This historical decision was made about 1991.

This is the type of information seldom seen in the majority press, yet, the importance of that event clearly points to the incredible service small papers and magazines such as Ancient American or the Capitol Spotlight and The Freedom Press Newsletter have been making, along iwth internet news and information sites such as this one. So, here we see an example in the continental United States where Africans who came before slavery, before Columbus and thousands of years before Christ (over six thousand years B.C., according to the Washitaw chroniclers), were engaged in boat building, seafaring, trade and commerce in ancient times and who still exist today as a distinct Black Nation who have evidence and proof of their ownership of millions of acres of lands in the Southern U.S. and the Mississippi Valley. The Washitaw Nation held an important convention in June 1992, in Monroe, Louisiana and have held others since. (see www.Hotep.org for the Washitaw’s point of view on their history and culture).

Yet, the Washitaw is merely one nation of the descendants of pre-columbian Blacks from Africa and elsewhere and possibly from right here in the Americas as the very first people to exist here, long before the development of the Mongoloid, American Indians or the Mongoloid( 15,000 B.C.) or even the Caucasian races (30,000 B.C.). Pure Black Homosapiens began to migrate from Africa and populate the entire earth about 200,000 to 150,000 years ago, according to scientists, historians and anthropologists.

Among the other Black nations who existed in the Americas before Columbus and long before Christ were the Jamassee (Yamassee), who had a large kingdom in the South eastern U.S., Their descendants were among the first Blacks of pre-columbian American origins who fell victim to kidnapping for the purpose of enslavement. Blacks of South America, the Caribbean and Central America were also attacked and enslaved based on a Pontifax passed during the mid- 1400’s by the Church hierachy giving the Europeans the go ahead to enslave all "Children of Ham" found in the newly discovered territories. The descendants of the Jamassee are the millions of Blacks who live in Alabama, Gerogia, South Carolina and northern Florida. They of course also have African slave ancestors, but these slaves are the relatives of the same Africans who sailed to America of their own free will, while Europe was in the Dark Ages, and long before Christ, for that matter.

In California, descendnats of the fierce "Black Californians" who were a Negroid people of African racial origins and the original owners of California and the South WEST (BEFORE THE SPANISH INVSION...OR THE CREATION OF THE MIXED RACE "HISPANIC" ETHNIC GROUP.
Many African-Americans in California are of Black Californian ancestry and their great grand parents were among the original Black Californians who were victims of Spanish Californio enslavement and Anglo American settler attacks. In fact, the Black Californian fought until the late 1800’s to maintain control of their ancestral lands from the settlers. THAT’S A FACT.

There are aboriginal nations of Blacks in Panama such as the Afro-Darienite and the Choco people.
In fact, the Afro-Darienite are the remnants of the aboriginal Black nations of South and Central America who were once hunted down to be made slaves by the Spaniards (in fact Balboa or Peter Matyr chroniclers referred to these Blacks as "slaves of our lord," ) meaning, like Blacks in Africa, the South Pacific and elsewhere, they were eligible for enslavement, being descended from Ham, the so-called "father of the Black race."

In Columbia’s Choco Region, on the Western side of that country, there are hundreds of thousands of Blacks, whose ancestors have been in Columbia for thousands of years. In fact, scientists and some historians have found out that Black slaves were being kidnapped and hunted down in Columbia and parts of South and Central America, as well as the Caribbean and U.S., by the Spaniards and others long before they began to look for slaves in Africa. (an old painting in Natonal Geographic clearly shows a black with bow and arrow and wearing a loin cloth, hunting along the coast of Columbia during the first voyage there by the Spaniards.
These Blacks today of the Choco Region of Columbia are among the most oppressed of Blacks in Latin America today (See the Final Call back issues on this topic)

Then there is the Garifuna or Kalifunami also called "Black Caribs" Being a member of the Black Carib Nation and having done historical research, the myth of the Black Caribs being escaped slaves has been debunked. It is true that the Black Caribs encouraged slaves from the West Indies Islands to join them and that the Black Caribs did ally with the Mongoloid Caribs of Dominica and other parts of the West Indies, but the fact remains, that the Black Caribs were originally Mende traders of gold and cloth, who established settlements throughout the Circum-Caribbean region, Mexico, Central America, South America and the Southern U.S.
They had been arriving in the Americas for thousands of years, even before they converted to Islam during the 900’s A.D.. In fact, the Olmecs of ancient Mexico were Mende, they used the Mende script (found on monments at Monte Alban, Mexico, and they named places from southern Mexico to South America with Mandinka names. Such names sometimes sound identical to the names of places used in West Africa.

In retrospect, while the debate for reparations increses, it is important that African-Americans know that two great injustices were committed by the Europeans. The first was slavery, the second was the taking of Black lands and destroying Black history and culture so Blacks remain totally ignorant of their rights to more than one third of north America. NOW YOU KNOW WHY THE SLAVEMASTERS DID NOT WANT BLACK FOLK TO LEARN TO READ, AND WHY PLANTS ARE PLACED IN CHATROOMS AND ON FORUMS TO ATTEMPT TO DISCREDIT ANY USEFUL HISTORY AND INFORMATION OFFERED TO BLACK PEOPLE.

Still, TRUTH SUBMERGED SHALL RISE AGAIN.


SUSU ECONOMICS

THE HISTORY OF PAN-AFRICAN TRADE, COMMERE, WEALTH AND MONEY
(A Preview of the Facinating History of the Development of Ancient Black Civilizations Worldwide)

One of the most important aspects of Black history worldwide is the development of Black civilization due to the early and persisten use and application of trade and commerce. Due to such early and well organized trading and commercial systems throughout the prehistoric Black world, Blacks were able to expand throughout the world and establish the world’s first cultures and civilizations. Although it is said that Blacks migrated from the original homeland of mankind in Africa to settle all Asia, Europe, Australia and the Americas (see Scientific American; Sept. 2000, p. 80-87...this is a recent publication), long before the differentiation of the races from the original Negritic to Negriic, Caucasoid, Mongoloid, along with the various mixed races such as Polynesians, Native Americans, Japanese, Malays, Mediterranean whites, East Indians (the mixed Negroid/Caucasian type...not the pure Black pre Aryan Negritic Indians), Arabs, Latinos (Mestizos, Mullatoes, Zambos, Spaniards) and a number of other mixed races and regional types, the purpose of the earlies migrations of Blacks from Africa to the rest of the world was not merely following and hunting wild animals, as some theorists have claimed, but searching for commodities, like red ocre to paint the smooth, dark skin from insects and decoration. Another purpose for the early migrations of Africans to other parts of the world was to establish trading and commercial links to those of their own people, who had left previously. Hence, even if the earliest migrations were after wandering herds of animals, further migrations were in search of links with their kinsmen and women.


The migrations of Africans to all parts of the world within the past hundred thousand years
or more occurred before an other races existed. Thus, Black culture and civilization was being established when no other "races" existed as we know them today. This is a facinating historical even, because having been homosapiens for over one hundred thousand years, it is very possible that Blacks could have gone through many periods of cultural development and civilization before the beginning of the Nile Valley civilization (since about 17,000 B.C.) or the Zingh Civilization of the South-Western Sahara (15,000 B.C.), or even Atlantis (10,000 B.C.), or the building of the Sphinx (7,000 B.C.).
In fact, there is evidence from ancient East Indian chronicles (some of these pictures are on AAWR (African American Web Ring) of the geat scientific advancement of the Black prehistoric inhabitants of the Indus Valley Civilization (6000 b.c. to 1700 b.c), who built flying machines, who had flushing toilets, cities on a gridlike pattern, and many of what we may call "modern" conviniences.

About 20,000 years ago, the present-day dried up and desertified Sahara had an aquatic civilization where the Africans who lived on the edges of the giant inland sea, built large ocean-going ships. Rock paiintings of these ships can still be seen in the Sahara (and some appeared on national geographic magazine about two years ago). (For more on the Aquatic Civilizations of the prehistoric Sahara, see, "African Presence In Early Asia," by Ivan Van Sertima and Runoko Rashidi, Transaction Publications, New Bruinswick, NJ).

The Africans who used these boats (which are still used today by tribes such as the Baduma of Mali, West Africa) made of papyrus straw. These same type of boats were used to travel to the Americas, the Indian Ocean, the South Pacific, India, East Asia and the Pacific, then to the Americas via the Pacific Ocean. In fact, the Fijians still consider Africa’s East Coast to be their very ancient homeland and Africans in East Africa have oral as well as written histories of ancient journies towards Asia.
In ancient times, trade between Africans in Africa and those in the Indian Ocean, East Asia and the Pacific Ocean, East Asia, the Americas, the Mediterranean, the Black Sea area and all the continents including Australia. In all these areas, evidence of prehistoric African Blacks exist. IT IS VERY IMPORTANT TO NOTE THAT SUCH EVIDENCE WAS AGAIN FOUND IN SOUTH AMERICA, WHERE ABOUT FIFTY SKULLS REPRESENTING NEGROID PEOPLE WERE FOUND IN BRAZIL (see Scientific American, September 2000). However, this is no news to some Blacks, particularly those descended from the ancient prehistoric Blacks of America, such as the Wasitaw of the Louisiana area, the descendants of the Black Californians, the Jamassee and others; the Black Caribs of the Caribbean and Central America, the Choco Region Blacks of Columbia, South America and many others.

This book examines the history of Black trade and commerce. It examines how money was made in ancient times and how this legacy continued well into the colonial era to this very day.

In a time when Blacks worldwide are suffering economically, this book clearly contributes to the knowledge and helps build the confidence needed to initiate a Black world economic renaissance and Black economic, social, numerical and cultural development among Black Americans and Blacks elsewhere.

More Pages by Paul Barton

Afro-Olmec
Gigantic stone head of Afro-Olmec (Xi People)
of ancient Mexico, circa 1100 B.C.


Afro-Olmec child
Face of Afro-Olmec child carved on the waste "belt" of an Olmec ballplayer


This stone belt was used by the Olmec ballplayers to catch the impact of the rubber balls in their ball games. This face is typical Negritic, including the eyes which seem to "slant," a common racial characteristic in West Africa, the Sahara and in South Africa among the Kong-San (Bushmen) and other Africans.

TRADE ROUTES OF THE ANCIENT BLACKS

During the years of migrations of Africans to all parts of the world, those who crossed the Atlantic, Indian Ocean and Pacific also used the seas to make trips to the northern parts of Africa. They may have avoided the northern routes across the deserts at particular times of the year and sailed northward by sailing parallel to the coastslines on their way northward or southward, just as the Phoenicians, Nubians and Egyptians had done.
Boats made of skin, logs, hollowed ttee trunk, lashed canoes and skin could have been used for trading and commerce.

The reed boat is a common type of watercraft used in West Africa and other parts of the world, yet there were other boats and ships to add to those already mentioned above. Boats similar to those of Nubia and Egypt were being used in the Sahara just as long or even longer than they were being used in Egypt. In fact, civilization in the Sahara and Sudan existed before Egypt was settled by Blacks from the South and the Sahara.

The vessels which crossed the Atlantic about 1500 B.C. (during the early Afro-Olmec period) were most likely the same types of ships shown in the sahara cave paintings of ships dating to about 7,000 B.C. or similar ships from Nubian rock carvings of 3000 B.C..

Egyptologists such as Sir Flinders Petrie believed that the ancient African drawings of ships represent papyrus boats similar to the one built by the Bambara People for Thor Hayerdhal on the shores of Lake Chad. This boat made it to Barbadose, however they did not reinforce the hull with rope as the ancient Egyptians and Nubians did with their ancient ships. That lack of reinforcement made the Bambara ship weak, however another papyrus ship built by Ayamara Indians in Lake Titicaca, Bolivia was reinforced and it made it to the West Indies without difficulty.

Naval historian Bjorn Landstrom believes that some of the curved hulls shown on rock art and pottery from the Nubian civilization (circa 3000 B.C.) point to a basic three-plank idea. The planks would have been sewn together with rope. The larer version must have had some interior framing to hold them together. The hulls of some ot these boats show the vertical extension of the bow and stern which may have been to keep them bouyant.

These types of boats are stilll in use in one of the most unlikely places. The Djuka and Saramaka Tribes of Surinam, known also as ’Bush Negroes,"
build a style of ship and boat similar to that of the Ancient Egyptians and Nubians, with their bows and sterns curving upward and pointing vertically.

This style of boat is also a common design in parts of West Africa, particularly along the Niger River where extensive river trading occurs. They are usually carved from a single tree trunk which is used as the backbone. Planks are then fitted alongside to enlarge them. In all cases, cabins are built on top of the interior out of woven mat or other strong fiberous material. These boats are usually six to eight feet across and about fifty feet long. There is evidence that one African Emperor Abubakari of Mali used these "almadias" or longboats to make a trip to the Americas during the 1300’s.(see, They Came Before Columbus, Ivan Van Sertima; Random House: 1975)

Apart from the vessels used by the West Africans and south western Sahara Black Africans to sail across the Atlantic to the Americas, Nubians, Kushites, Egyptians and Ethiopians were known traders in the Mediterranean. The Canaanites, the Negroid inhabitants of the Levant who later became the Phoenicians also were master seafarers. This has caused some to speculate that the heads of the Afro-Olmecs represent the heads of servants of the Phoenicians, yet no dominant people would build such massive and collosol monuments to their servants and not to themselves.

Check for historical references and literature

ANTHROPOLOGISTS BELIEVE THERE WAS AN ANCIENT BLACK PRESENCE IN THE AMERICAS


During the International Congress of American Anthropologists held in Bacelona, Spain in 1964, a French anthropologist pointed out that all that was missing to prove a definite presence of Negritic Blacks in the Americas before Columbus was Negroid skeletons to add to the already found Negroid featured terracottas. Later on February of 1975 skeletons of Negroid people dating to the 1200’s were found at a precolumbian grave in the Virgin Islands. Andrei Wierzinski, the Polish crainologist also concluded based on the study of skeletons found in Mexico, that a good portion of the skulls were that of Negritic Blacks,

Based on the many finds for a Black African Negroid presence in ancient Mexico, some of the most enthusiastic proponents of a pre-columbian Black African presence in Mexico are Mexican professionals. They conclude that Africans must have established early important trading centers on the coasts along Vera Cuz, from which Middle America’s first civiliztion grew.

In retrospect, ancient Africans did visit the Americas from as early as about 100,000 B.C. where they stayed for tens of thousands of years. By 30,000 B.C., to about 15,000 B.C., a massive migration from the Sahara towards the Indian Ocean and the Pacific in the East occurred from the Sahara. Blacks also migrated Westward across the Atlantic Ocean towards the Americas during that period until the very eve of Columbus’ first journey to the Americas.

Trade, commerce and exploration as well as the search for new lands when the Sahara began to dry up later in history was the catalyst that drove the West Africans towards the Atlantic and into the Americas.

REFERENCES


Washitaw Nation (www.Hotep.org)

Clyde A. Winters (The Nubians and the Olmecs)

Blacks of India dalitstan.org

Blacks of the Pacific and Melanesia:
www.cwo.com/~lucumi/pacific.html

If you ever visit the ancient Afro-Olmec monuments of Mexico, the Washitaw Nation of Louisiana, the monuments of Nubia, Egypt or West Africa you need to take great pictures:
www.photoalley.com


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